Motivation is fundamental to the task of management. Many different theories have been presented on how management might motivate employees; Adams’ equity theory is an attempt to bring a more modern approach to the topic, based on the idea of distributive justice.
(a) The process theory of motivation asks the question ‘How can people be motivated?’ The process theory of motivation does not emphasise the need for fulfilment through work (as in the content theory), but concentrates upon the processes through which individuals are motivated. They attempt to explain how individuals start, sustain and direct behaviour and assume that individuals are able to select their own goals and means of achieving those goals through a process of calculation. Process theory emphasises the importance of rewards, often financial.