The objectivity of the external auditor may be threatened or appear to be threatened where: (i) There is undue dependence on any audit client or group of clients; (ii) The firm, its partners or staff have any financial interest in an audit client; (iii) There are family or other close personal or business relationships between the firm, its partners or staff and the audit client; (iv) The firm provides other services to audit clients. Required: For each of the four examples given above, explain why the objectivity of the external auditor may be threatened, or appear to be threatened, and why the threat is important

Why external auditor objectivity may be, or appear to be, threatened

(i) Undue dependence

If the auditor depends, or relies on a particular client or group of connected clients because the firm takes a large part of its fee income from the client, the auditor may be less likely to challenge accounting policies or disclosures proposed by the client, for fear of upsetting them. This typically happens when the firm is small, but the client is large.
Where the firm feels that an audit qualification may be necessary, it may be reluctant to issue it for fear of losing the client and the fee income. This applies regardless of whether the fee income is audit fee income or income for other work.
The issue is important because if the auditor does not issue a qualified audit report where appropriate, the firm may be sued for negligence. Where a large client is involved, the firm‘s professional indemnity insurance may not cover the claim.

(ii) Financial interest

Where a partner or member of staff in a firm (or the firm itself) holds shares in a client, they have an interest in the client‘s performance. If the client performs well, the value of the shares may rise. A qualified audit report is not usually associated with good performance and the firm may therefore be reluctant to issue one where appropriate. This is important for the reasons noted above.
Even if there is no question of a qualified audit report, there may be a temptation to help the client present the results in the best possible light, instead of presenting a balanced view.
There is also a financial interest where partners, staff or the firm make loans to, or guarantee the borrowings of the client or vice versa. Significantly overdue fees of amounts that are significant to either auditor or client are akin to loans.

(iii) Family or other close personal or business relationships

Where there are family or other close personal or business relationships between client and audit firm, the individuals concerned may try to influence the firm in its dealings with the client in order to protect the family or personal relationship, or the mutual business interest.

If, for example, an audit partner is married to the finance director of a client, it is less likely that the client will receive a qualified audit report than it would be if the relationship did not exist. This is important in any case but more so where the effect of a qualified (or modified) audit report is likely to result in, say, withdrawal or non-renewal of banking facilities which might result in the business ceasing to be a going concern. If the firm does not issue a modified audit report in such circumstances, the firm may be exposed to claims of negligence by the bank.

If there are close business relationships between client and auditor, both parties have an interest in each other‘s performance and there is therefore a double pressure to present the results in the best possible light and not to issue a qualified audit report.

(iv) Other services

Many audit firms provide their audit clients with services other than audit services. It is very common for to provide their very small audit clients with accountancy services, for example.
Other services that can be provided include tax, management consulting, IT and human resources advice. Some firms not only provide consulting advice, but also perform IT and other functions for some of their clients.
There are two threats to objectivity where other services are provided. Firstly, the firm may find that it is reporting on a system that the firm itself has set up or advised on, or reporting on information that the firm itself has prepared. This means that it is reporting on its own work and it may be difficult to be objective in such circumstances. Secondly, the fee income from other services may well exceed the fee income from the audit and the client may pressure the firm to give an unqualified audit report by threatening to take the other services to another firm if a qualified report is given.

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