Skills that a manager needs to overcome these difficulties.
Skills are what separate good managers from others. For effective management, the primary skills are technical, interpersonal, conceptual and diagnostic.
a) Technical skills
These are skills needed to perform specialized tasks and are especially important for first line managers. They enable one to use the tools, procedures or techniques of a specialized field.
b) Interpersonal skills (Human)
These are the skills needed to work with, motivate and understand individuals or groups. The better a manager’s human skills are, the more effective he is likely to be.
c) Conceptual skills
These relate to a manager’s mental ability to coordinate and integrate all the organizations interests and activities i.e. be able to think in the abstract, to see relationships between forces that others cannot see and to take a global perspective of the organization and its environment.
d) Diagnostic skills
The skills used to define and understand situations and events, they are mainly directed at problem solving. Managers should be able to distinguish a problem from a symptom.
Although all skills are essential for effective management, their relative importance depends on the level of each manager.
Technical skills are more important at lower levels of management, human skills are probably most important at the supervisory level while conceptual and diagnostic skills are most important at the top management level where the managers are involved in broad issues concerning the whole organization.