Write short notes on the following: Job production, Mass production and Batch production

It may also be called unique production. It is the production of single items, usually to order
i.e. most products are made for a particular customer or to a particular order. These products may be small, tailor-made components, huge pieces of equipment or large single items such as a ship.

Because of the unique nature of each article to be produced, planning is not easy in jobbing production, neither is control. A lot of inventiveness and creativity is required.

Characteristics of job production
• A wide variety of different operations to be performed under varying circumstances i.e. no standardization
• Varying sequences of operations
• General purpose machinery and equipment
• Unpredictable demand on stocks
• Workforce skilled in a wide range of skills
Circumstances that would justify adoption of job production
• Where large items e.g. ships have to be built
• Where single large pieces of equipment such as electricity generating plant are to be manufactured
• Where individual items e.g. a bridge is to be constructed
• Where small one-off parts are to be produced to the order of the production department.

This is the continuous production of operations that flow from one operation to the next until completion without a break. This type of production requires careful and lengthy planning of plant and process. The capital costs are high because of the specialized nature of machines required for the production line. Once the line has been set up, control is relatively simple.

• Rigid product specifications previously tested.
• Specialized machines and equipment, set out in line formation
• Highly standardized methods, tools and materials
• Long production runs for individual products
• Narrow range of skills
Its greatest drawback is that it requires human persons to adopt themselves to the production process. The work can be tedious and monotonous circumstances that would justify the adoption of mass production.
• Where large quantities of a narrow range of goods are required to meet the demands of mass markets.
• Where standardized units can be moved individually from one operation process to the next without requiring any break in operations.
• Where returns from mass production are expected to meet the expensive start-up costs of an assembly line form of production.
• Where large quantities of liquids, powders or gases are to be processed e.g. paper production, cement manufacture, or the production of petroleum spirit.

This is the production of standard units in lots, where each lot has to be processed at each operation before moving forward to the next operation.

Batches may be produced to order and forwarded directly to the customer, as in the production of sub-components for another manufacturer or they may be made for stock.

A major problem with batch production is to determine the optimum size of batches especially where general demand exists. If too many units are produced, stocks will lie idle or go to waste; if too few are produced, the item will go out of stock.

• A standardized set of operations, carried out intermittently, as each batch moves from one operation to the next.
• General-purpose machinery and plant but group in batteries of the same type.
• Heavy shop floor stores requirement.
• Narrower range of skills.
• Emphasis on production planning and progressing
• Relatively short production runs.
Its main disadvantage is the time-delay caused by the queuing effect of individual units waiting for the batch to be completed before moving to the next operation.

The circumstances that would justify the adoption of batch production are:

• Where items are to be produced for stock e.g. to support production in due course.
• Where standardized items are being manufactured, on a sub-contracted basis for another manufacturer.
• Where production requires a variety of quantities and types of items that cannot be produced under a flow-production process, because of interruptions to the flow of operations.

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