In relation to the law of property: Enumerate the characteristics of a joint tenancy and State the various ways in which a lease agreement may be determined

(i)
• Joint tenancy is a situation in which property is owned by two or more persons.
• The property enjoys all the properties of a single proprietor.
• It is characterized by the “four unities” i.e.
o Unity of title
o Unity of possession
o Unity of interest
o Unity of time
• It is also characterized by the right of survivorship i.e. jus accrescendi i.e. proprietary rights of a deceased proprietor devolves upon the survivors.

(ii)
• Notice – applies to leases for undefined duration.
• Effluxion of time or expiration of time.
• Forfeiture –under the forfeiture clause or breach.
• Surrender –to the immediate landlord.
• Merger –tenant acquires the reversion, the lease and reversion must be vested in the same person.

• Enlargement –a lease may enlarge to a fee simple if the tenant executes a deed of enlargement.
• Becoming a satisfied term: if a lease is granted as a security for the payment of money, theterm becomes satisfied and the lease automatically ceases when all the money has been paid.
• Disclaimer: a right to disclaim a lease arises only by statute. The effect of a valid disclaimeris the same as if there had been a surrender.
• Frustration: inNational Carriers Ltd. V. Panalpina Ltd (1981)the House of Lords held thatthe doctrine of frustration can apply in a rare case to a lease of land so as to bring the lease to an end



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